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Etiella spp, Soybean pod borer pest and Its Control Method

In Indonesia, the soybean pod borer Etiella spp. (Etiella zinckenella and Etiella hopsoni) can cause severe damage to the pods. Yield losses due to these pests can reach 80%. Moreover, if no control measures could result puso.

The distribution of this pest found in almost all provinces and is one of the major pests in soybean production centers. Results of the survey conducted by Balitkabi mention that this pest was found in 20 provinces in Indonesia. Etiella hopsoni numerous in the region of Sumatra, as well as some parts of Java and Sulawesi. While E. zinckenella widespread throughout Indonesia. In connection with that, allegedly population density Etiella spp. tends to increase when the host crop is getting wider. Basically, the growth and development of insect pests in nature is influenced by the quality and quantity of feed. The more feed is preferred, then the growth and development of insect pests will be faster. In addition, the season influence the development of the larval population Etiella spp.

The results of the study in the rainy season in West Java showed that the larval population Etiella spp. low, but the population increased from late May and early June and culminating in the beginning of June or early July into the dry season. Meanwhile, in East Java, the population tends to increase during the dry season and the most severe attacks on three soybean growing season between July-August. In the hot dry season temperatures cause faster metabolic activities of pests. This resulted in shortening its life cycle and pest population is increasing rapidly.

Then, what about the habits of this pest? According to the research of Prof.. Dr. Marwoto, pest larvae Etiella spp. would rather eat the young seeds. The seeds digerek completely discharged or left only a little. Another thing that can be observed is in the pods are rarely found more than one larvae. Larvae prefer to live alone in a pod, if it occurs in one pod there is more than one there will be a competition that ultimately weak larvae will come out and move to another pod. The attack on the young pods pods can result in hair loss. Instead, the attack on the old pods can reduce the quantity and quality of soybean seeds.

Physically, both the soybean pests have differences. E. zinckenella moth is grayish and has a white line on the front wing, while E. hobsoni not have a white stripe on its wings. When laying, the eggs are laid in groups on the underside of leaves, flower petals or the pod. Each group number from 4-15 grains. The egg-shaped oval with a diameter of 0.6 mm. By the time the egg is laid glossy white, then turns reddish. When it will hatch into orange color. After 3-4 days, the eggs hatch and the caterpillars out. Caterpillar emerging from egg white and then changed to yellowish green with a red stripe lengthwise. Caterpillar instars 1 and 2 broaching leather pod, then go and live in broaching seeds in the seed. After the second instar, caterpillars live outside of the seed. In the pods often encountered more than 1 tail caterpillar. Final instar caterpillar has a length of 13-15 mm with a width of 2-3 mm. The next process, pupae in the soil formed by first making the cells of the ground. The pupae are brown with 8-10 mm long and 2 mm wide. After 9-15 days, pupae turn into moths. Signs attack drill a hole in the skin round pods. If there are two drill holes in the pod mean caterpillar has left the pod.

Not only is soy, Etiella pod borer spp. This can also live in pods of green beans (Vigna radiata), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and beans (Vigna sinensis). Moths Etiella spp. that emerged from soybean pods rather than laying eggs on Crotalaria soybean, mung bean (Vigna radiata), and beans (Vigna sinensis), as well as the moths out of Crotalaria and green beans prefer soybean pods of the peas or green beans Crotalaria .

Pest control is accomplished by the application of a strategy based on Integrated Pest Management (IPM). IPM strategies are compatible supports all the techniques or methods of controlling pests and diseases based on the principles of ecology and economics. Operating principle used in IPM include: (1) Raising healthy plants. Healthy plants have a high ecological resilience against pests. To that end, the use of production technology packages in agronomic practices implemented should be directed to the establishment of healthy plants. (2) Preservation of natural enemies. Natural enemies (parasites, predators and pathogens of insects) is an important pest control factors that need to be conserved and managed to be able to play a role in the regulation of maximum pest population in the field. (3). Monitoring ecosystems in an integrated manner. Intensive cropping ecosystem monitoring routinely by farmers is the basis for decision-making ecosystem analysis and take action as necessary. (4). Farmers as IPM experts. Farmers as decision makers in analyzing ecosystems and skills and be able to set a proper pest control decisions in accordance with the basic IPM. The components of pod borer control is (a) growing simultaneously with a gap of less than 10; (b) crop rotation; (c) the release of the parasitoid Trichogramma spp.; (d) spray with insecticides when populations reach threshold control (klorfluazuron, betasiflutrin, sipermetrin, alfametrin, carbosulfan, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin).

 

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